Our country's commitment to the world to "carbon reduction" and "carbon neutrality" provides a rare historical opportunity for the development of clean energy in rural areas. It is also a historical responsibility that must be taken. It is necessary to break through the bottleneck restricting rural energy development. The rural areas in northern my country are vast, with cold climate and large differences in natural conditions. Most areas have underdeveloped economies and farmers have different living habits. They do not have the practice of "copying" clean heating in the rural areas of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei. Therefore, it is necessary to formulate a clean energy development plan based on local conditions, combined with local economic development, resource conditions, and farmers’ living habits. To this end, the following suggestions are made:
First, we must speed up the formulation of the "14th Five-Year" rural clean energy development plan. In accordance with the requirements of the Fifth Plenary Session of the Nineteenth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, both top-level design and grounding must be done in the preparation of planning. It is necessary to speed up the revision of the Renewable Energy Law, clarify the concepts and scope of fossil energy, renewable energy and clean energy. From the strategic height of promoting "carbon reduction" and "carbon neutrality", make overall planning, step-by-step implementation, and formulate and implement plans. Strengthened supervision and assessment. At the same time, it is necessary to take the "people" as the center, take farmers' acceptance or dissatisfaction as the "ruler", and measure the scientificity and operability of the planning based on whether it meets the actual needs of the countryside.
Second, build a rural clean energy system based on abundant biomass resources. In the north, the output of straw is large in autumn and winter, and overlaps with the heating season, and biomass energy can provide cooking functions while heating. Every farmer wants to use cheap clean energy for cooking and heating, but it is also a problem that every farmer cannot solve by himself. For farmers in the north, the winter is long, and most of their energy use is heating and cooking, while electricity and natural gas are only supplements. Rural areas have resources and farmers have needs. The key is to build an industrial chain and a market interest chain to convert biomass resources into clean energy. Take pilot demonstrations as the forerunner, develop biomass low-carbon energy demonstration projects based on local conditions, and explore technical routes and development models suitable for rural energy. Pilot demonstrations are carried out in accordance with the principle of marketization as the mainstay and policy subsidies as supplementary. Do not "go ahead and do what you can," do not "break up pieces" and "bloom everywhere". Instead, choose a whole village, an entire village, an entire town, or even an entire town. The county promotes the construction of demonstration projects, and links with the assessment of banning straw burning and comprehensive utilization.
Third, we must systematically plan rural energy technology routes. Organically combine the treatment of agricultural and forestry wastes, domestic garbage and manure to establish a clean energy system with high efficiency, low cost and low emissions. As a primary energy source, biomass is directly converted into heat, with a short conversion path and high conversion efficiency. First, establish a rural clean energy processing system, build an industrial chain of straw collection, storage and processing in accordance with marketization, and provide clean energy products for farmers, urban and rural areas. Farmers are not only resource providers, but also producers, but also beneficiaries. The second is to develop household stoves suitable for rural straw briquettes, which are convenient to use, economical and durable, clean and efficient, and have low pollutant emissions. The third is to develop low-emission, high-efficiency straw direct-fired boilers to meet the demand for clean heating. The fourth is to build biomass cogeneration projects in villages and towns that are qualified to guide the transformation of existing biomass power plants into cogeneration power plants. The fifth is to develop straw gasification, biochar and carbon-based fertilizer projects to promote the carbonization of straw and return it to the field. Sixth, in rural areas where conditions are suitable, build a distributed low-carbon integrated energy network that complements solar, wind, and biomass in accordance with local conditions. Give full play to the advantages of biomass energy technology. For rural garbage, it is necessary to combine centralized and decentralized treatment. For incineration scale, power generation projects can be built and heat supply; for scattered garbage, it should be combined with manure, and fermentation technology should be used for treatment. Or power generation, and the biogas residue and liquid are made into organic fertilizer. According to the social division of labor, an industrial chain is formed. In particular, the biogas residue and biogas slurry produced by the biogas project of large and medium-sized farms in the north must be combined with modern green organic agriculture and used for planting high-value-added green agricultural products in order to compensate for the biogas project and maintain its viability. Run continuously.
Fourth, we must establish a rural energy operation system. Solving the rural energy problem is a responsibility that governments at all levels cannot evade and cannot circumvent. Moreover, making up for rural energy shortcomings can promote rural ecological construction and industrial revitalization. At present, although there is a gap between rural clean energy technology and developed countries, it is basically sufficient. The key is to combine the use of reasonable technology with effective management mechanisms and policies, strengthen system matching and integration, and avoid "reconstruction and light management." . Organize villages to promote clean energy and stoves, and provide technical consulting services for farmers. For example, the difficulty in the promotion of household biogas is that it is difficult to clean up biogas residues and liquids. A household biogas service system can be established to take a professional road to solve the problems of toilet modification and biogas digester cleaning that cannot be solved by farmers themselves. By combining government organization and marketization, the government provides equipment such as sewage trucks and appropriate fees to solve farmers' worries about the development of biogas.
Fifth, build a clean heating management system in towns and villages. At present, the area of central heating in large northern towns is nearly one million square meters. In order to meet the needs of the rapid development of urbanization, the urban heating management system should be extended to towns and towns. The government shall coordinate the construction and operation of heating pipe networks and heat storage systems, organize heating enterprises to go online in an orderly manner based on quality and price, and avoid urban heating pipe networks. The shortcomings of "separation of princes" will improve heating quality and reduce heating costs. Incorporate energy conservation into the rural energy management system, and strengthen the thermal insulation renovation of rural old houses.
Sixth, we must establish a policy system to promote the sustainable development of rural energy. It is necessary to integrate rural pollution control, ecological environmental protection, promote the construction of beautiful ecologically livable villages, and promote low-carbon development and green finance related policies, and closely integrate the development of rural clean energy with ecological environmental governance, and the realization of "carbon emission reduction" and "Carbon neutrality" related policies are closely integrated to form a policy system that supports the development of clean energy in rural areas and improve the efficiency of policy use. It is necessary to scientifically plan clean energy demonstration projects, and seek truth from facts to measure the operating costs of farmers, villages, and township systems, find out which should be handed over to the market or farmers, which are the links and scope of government subsidies, and how much subsidies are in a village or a town. What are the investment and sustainable operating costs? Find out the bottom line, draw a clear boundary, facilitate decision-making, and attract social capital to participate. In terms of scale, "do not be greedy and seek more", and "do not sprinkle sesame salt" in capital investment, so as to "build one into one, stand up, and go far." Make solid progress to form a number of clean energy development models suitable for rural areas in the north and south of my country, and gradually promote them on this basis.
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